In this chapter on equity, social justice and NHI, published in the AICDs 2013 Budget Justice Book, Daygan Eagar makes a compelling case for health care financing reform in South Africa. Eagar argues that “Even though the public system is underfunded when compared to the private sector, there is no doubt that it continues to underperform relative to investment. Hundreds of millions of Rands are lost each year due to chronic and widespread public resource mismanagement and corruption. This is money that could and should be used to dramatically improve health outcomes. This is particularly important for health care in rural areas, which continues to suffer from the legacy of apartheid’s separate development and resource allocation processes that have served to sustain an “inequality-infrastructure trap”.